Previously, we discussed ionic bonding in which electrons can be transferred from one atom to another so that both atoms have an energetically stable outer electron shell. Because most filled electron shells have 8 electrons in them, chemists call this tendency the octet rule. However, there is another way an atom can achieve a full valence shell: atoms can share electrons. (For atoms as small as hydrogen, the valence shell would be the first to contain only two electrons.) Two individual hydrogen atoms can be represented as follows: Read: how to know one How many bonds can the element form? When two hydrogen atoms come close enough to share their electrons, they can be represented as follows: By sharing their valence electrons, both hydrogen atoms now have two electrons in the shell. their respective valence shells. Because each valence shell is now filled, this arrangement is more stable than if the two atoms were separate. The sharing of electrons between atoms is called a covalent bond, and two electrons that participate in atoms in a covalent bond are called a bonding electron pair. A discrete group of atoms joined together by covalent bonds is called a molecule – the smallest part of a compound that retains its chemical properties. Chemists often use Lewis diagrams to represent covalent bonds in molecules of substances. For example, the Lewis diagram of two separate hydrogen atoms is as follows: Read more: how to remove footer in google docs | Top Q&AThe Lewis diagram of two hydrogen atoms sharing electrons looks like this:This molecular description is further simplified by using dashes to represent covalent bonds. Then the hydrogen molecule is represented as:Remember that the dash, also known as a single bond, represents a pair of electrons. The bond in a hydrogen molecule, as measured by the distance between two nuclei, is about 7.4 × 10− 11 m, or 74 picometers (dimension; 1 dimensional = 1 × 10−12 m). This particular bond length represents a balance between several forces: attraction between nuclei and oppositely charged electrons, repulsion between two negatively charged electrons, and repulsion between two positively charged nuclei. . If the nuclei were closer together, they would repel each other more strongly; If the nuclei were further apart, there would be less attraction between the positive and negative particles. The two separate fluorine atoms have the following electron dot diagram: Each fluorine atom contributes one valence electron, forming a single bond, and giving each atom a complete, responsive valence shell. octal Rule: The circles show that each fluorine atom has eight electrons around it. For hydrogen, we can represent the fluorine molecule with a dash in place of the bonding electrons: Each fluorine atom has six electrons, or three electron pairs, that do not participate in covalent bonding. . Instead of being shared, they are considered to belong to a single atom. These are called unbonded electron pairs (or lone pairs). Read more: how to restart pokemon ultra moon
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