Key Differences – NAD and NADP
NAD and NADP are two types of coenzymes used in cell metabolism. Both compounds are used to carry electrons from one reaction to another. Therefore, both NAD and NADP contain an oxidized and reduced form. The reduced form of NAD is NADH while the oxidized form is NAD+. In NADP, the reduced form is NADH and the oxidized form is NADP+. The Main difference between NAD and NADP is NAD is used in cellular respiration while NADP is used in photosynthesis.
Main areas covered
1. What is NAD? – Definition, Features, Functions 2. What is NADP? – Definition, Features, Functions 3. Similarities Between NAD and NADP – Summary of general features 4. Difference between NAD and NADP – Compare Key Differences Read: What is the difference between nad+ and nadp? Key terms: Cellular Respiration, Coenzyme, NAD, NAD+, NADP, NADPH, Photosynthesis
What is NAD?
NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) refers to a coenzyme involved in the redox reactions of cellular respiration inside cells. It is used in glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, fatty acid synthesis, and sterol synthesis. Dehydrogenase, hydroxylase, and reductase are enzymes that use NAD as an electron carrier. NAD+ is the oxidized form of NAD while NADH is the reduced form. The structures of both NAD+ and NADH are shown in figure 1.NAD+ acts as electron and hydrogen acceptor while NADH acts as electron and hydrogen donor. NAD+ is used to obtain electrons from intracellular catabolic reactions such as glycolysis and the Krebs cycle. This creates NADH. NADH carries electrons to the electron transport chain. In the electron transport chain, ATP is produced by removing electrons from NADH.
What is NADP?
NADP (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) refers to a coenzyme involved in redox reactions inside cells. It is mainly used in anabolic reactions such as nucleic acid and lipid synthesis. NADPH is the most abundant form of NADP inside the cell, it acts as a reducing agent. It differs structurally from NAD by the presence of an additional phosphate group at the 2′ position of ribose, which carries the adenine moiety. The structure of NADP + is shown in Figure 2.NADPH is generated in the light reaction of photosynthesis by the enzyme ferredoxin-NADP + reductase. Its reduction energy is used in the Calvin cycle, assimilation of carbon dioxide. In animals, NADP is used in the pentose phosphate pathway.
Similarities Between NAD and NADP
- Both NAD and NADP are coenzymes used in cellular metabolism.
- NAD and NADP are the most abundant coenzymes inside the cell.
- Both NAD and NADP are nucleotides.
- Both NAD and NADP carry electrons from one reaction to another.
- Both NAD and NADP have an oxidized and reduced form.
- Both NAD and NADP contain two ribose rings, an adenine moiety.
Difference Between NAD and NADP
ARE NOT: NAD is a coenzyme that participates in redox reactions during cellular respiration within cells. Read more: 9 mm in inchesNADP: NADP is a coenzyme involved in redox reactions inside cells.
ARE NOT: NAD is used in cellular respiration.NADP: NADP is used in photosynthesis.
ARE NOT: NAD does not contain a phosphate group.NADP: NADP contains a phosphate group at the 2′ position of the ribose ring, carrying an adenine moiety.
ARE NOT: NADH is a shortened form of NAD.NADP: NADPH is a shortened form of NADP.
ARE NOT: NAD+ is a shortened form of NAD.NADP: NADP+ is the oxidized form of NADP.
Read more: 10 Traits of a Beach Bum: Are You One? | Top Q&AARE NOT: The oxidized form of NAD is most abundant inside the cell.NADP: The reduced form of NADP is most abundant inside the cell.
ARE NOT: NAD+ is mainly used as an oxidant.NADP: NADPH is mainly used in catabolic reactions.
ARE NOT: NAD is used in glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, fatty acid synthesis, and sterol synthesis.NADP: NADP is used in the Calvin cycle, the pentose phosphate pathway, lipid synthesis, fatty acid chain elongation, and cholesterol synthesis.
NAD and NADP are the most abundant coenzymes in the cell, used in redox reactions. Both NAD and NADP are structurally similar but NADP contains a phosphate group. NAD is mainly used in cellular respiration and electron transport chain while NADP is used in photosynthesis. This is the difference between NAD and NADP. References: 1. “What is Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD)?” topqa.info, Available here. 2. “NADPH: Definition, Structure & Function.” topqa.info, Available here. Image Courtesy: 1. “Image 07 01 01ab” by CNX OpenStax (CC BY 4.0) via Commons Wikimedia2. “NADP + Phys” by NEUROtiker – Own work (Public Domain) via Commons WikimediaRead more: What happens if the university burns down
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