Understanding an automobile valvetrain | Top Q&A

One valve system or van ship is a part of the internal combustion engine, responsible for controlling the operation of the intake and exhaust valves. this is a intake valve allowing the air-fuel mixture to enter the combustion process. The exhaust valve allows the exhaust gas to exit the combustion chamber after the process is complete.Read: Components of Automotive Engines Today we will look at the definition, layout, function, working and components of the valve system in an internal combustion engine.

Valve system definition


A valve system is a component designed to open and close the intake and exhaust valves so that the air/fuel mixture can enter and leave the combustion chamber as a gas. Today, engines are designed with an upper cam assembly called an overhead camshaft. It’s located near the top of the engine, doesn’t like those that place the camshaft lower in the engine and uses push rods to move the valve assemblies. This arrangement of valve systems is called Cam-in-block, some valve system layouts do not use camshafts. It uses technologies such as solenoids to control individual valves. it’s called Camless. Read everything you need to know about automotive pistons

Function and working principle of valve system

The main function of the valve system is to control the opening and closing of the valves. The valve system also controls the flow of air and fuel into the combustion chamber and out as exhaust gas. During the working of the valve system, the camshaft plays a very important role because its rotation supports Assists in opening and closing valves using cam lobes. Although there are many different parts that make the valve work, in most heavy-duty diesel engines four valves are used, that is, there are four valves in each cylinder. Two valves for intake/fuel and two for exhaust. The intake valves are larger in diameter than the exhaust valves, this allows more air to flow to the cylinder, the exhaust valves are designed to withstand the higher temperatures of hot exhaust gases than the intake valves. This is because the fresh air flowing through the intake valves will keep it at a lower temperature. in the middle of the valve is pushed down to inject fuel into the cylinder. Well, the valve opening and closing times are extremely precise, which makes it efficient. In newer engines, an electrical signal is used to connect the injectors, rather than actuate the mechanical valve. This process is even more precise.The video below explains the operation of the relief valveain: Read: How car engines work

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Valve system components

Below are the various components that support the operation of the valve system:


The function of the camshaft is to control the timing and raise the valve opening profile. This is achieved by the cam rim on the crankshaft. The camshaft is driven by the crankshaft and it rotates at half the speed of the crankshaft in the case of a four-stroke engine. a rubber timing belt. A gear set can also be used.


The push rod is a long, thin metal rod used in overhead valve engines. It is also used to transmit motion from the camshaft in the engine block to the valves in the cylinder head. There is a lifter at the bottom end of the push rod in contact with the camshaft. The camshaft lobe moves the lifter upwards, moving the push rod. The top end of the lifter continues to push against the regulator arm, opening the valve.

Tappet hand rocker / bucket:

The motor design determines how the valve works, either by a swing arm, finger, or bucket puppet. In overhead camshaft engines, we use a bucket or finger to contact the cam lobe. The lever arm is used in overhead valve motors, which are actuated by a push rod and the shaft rotates on a shaft. It can also be rotated on individual ball studs which will help actuate the valves.


The valve used in most modern engines is called a poppet valve. Sometimes, several valves such as sleeve valves, slide valves and rotary valves are also considered. In general, poppet valves are opened by a camshaft or swing arm. It is closed by a coil spring called a valve spring.Here is a diagram of a valve system:valve system diagramRead: Learn How Flywheel Works That’s the content of this article “Automotive Valve System”. Looking forward to the knowledge gained, if any, please comment, share and recommend this page to other engineering students. Thank!

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