Introduction to Chemistry | Top Q&A

Video What is the Standard State Read more: Square root of 41 | Top Q & ATerms

  • enthalpy of solution The heat associated with the dissolution of a particular solute in a particular solvent.
  • standard enthalpy of formation The enthalpy change that accompanies the formation of one mole of a compound from its elements, with all substances in their standard states; also known as the “standard heat of formation”.
  • Standard states In chemistry, benchmarks are used to calculate the properties of materials (pure substances, mixtures, or solutions) under various conditions.

Standard State

In chemistry, the standard state of a material, be it a pure substance, mixture, or solution, is a benchmark used to calculate its properties under various conditions. In principle, the choice of standard states is arbitrary, although the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) recommends a common set of standard states for general use. Standard pressure 1 bar (101.3 kilopascals) accepted Read: standard state Strictly speaking, temperature is not part of the definition of standard state; The standard state of a gas is conventionally 1 bar for an ideal gas, independent of temperature. However, most tables of thermodynamic quantities are compiled for specific temperatures, most commonly 298.15 K (25 °C to be exact) or less commonly 273.15 K (exactly 25°C) exactly 0°C). Read more: virus / Anti-virus Steps – updated June 2020 The standard state for the atomic elements is given based on the most stable allotrope for each element. For example, white tin and graphite are the most stable allotropes of tin and carbon, respectively. Therefore, they are used as standard states or reference points for calculating the different thermodynamic properties of these elements.White tin (left) is the most stable allotrope of tin and is used as its standard state for thermodynamic calculations. in analytical chemistry. Standard states are usually represented in textbooks by a circle with a horizontal bar [latex]H ^ ominus_f[/latex].Introductory ChemistryGraphite Graphite is the most stable state of carbon and is used in thermochemistry to determine the heat of formation of carbon compounds.

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Standard Enthalpy of Formation

Standard enthalpy of formation, or standard heat of formation, of a compound is the change in enthalpy that accompanies the formation of one mole of a compound from its elements in their standard states. For example, the standard enthalpy formed for carbon dioxide would be the change in enthalpy for the following reaction: Read more: Blue archival scrolling banner[latex]C(s) (graphite) + O_2 (g) right arrow CO_2 (g) quadquadquadquad Delta H ^ ominus_f = -394; kJ/mol[/latex]Note that the standard enthalpy of formation is always given in units of kJ/mol of the compound formed. Read more: Square root of 41 | Top Q&A

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