Chemistry | Top Q&A

We can rank the strengths of acids by the extent to which they ionize in aqueous solution. The reaction of an acid with water is given by the general expression:[latex]text{HA}left(aqright)+{text{H}}_{2}text{O}left(lright)rightleftharpoons {text{H}}_{3}{text{O}}^{+}left(aqright)+{text{A}}^{-}left(aqright)[/latex]Reading: what is percent ionizationWater is the base that reacts with the acid HA, A− is the conjugate base of the acid HA, and the hydronium ion is the conjugate acid of water. A strong acid yields 100% (or very nearly so) of [latex]{text{H}}_{3}{text{O}}^{+}[/latex] and A− when the acid ionizes in water; Table 1 lists several strong acids. A weak acid gives small amounts of [latex]{text{H}}_{3}{text{O}}^{+}[/latex] and A−. Table 1. Some Common Strong acids and Strong Bases Strong Acids Strong Bases HClO4 perchloric acid LiOH lithium hydroxide HCl hydrochloric acid NaOH sodium hydroxide HBr hydrobromic acid KOH potassium hydroxide HI hydroiodic acid Ca(OH)2 calcium hydroxide HNO3 nitric acid Sr(OH)2 strontium hydroxide H2SO4 sulfuric acid Ba(OH)2 barium hydroxideThe relative strengths of acids may be determined by measuring their equlibrium constants in aqueous solutions. In solutions of the same concentration, stronger acids ionize to a greater extent, and so yield higher concentrations of hydronium ions than do weaker acids. The equilibrium constant for an acid is called the acid-ionization constant, Ka. For the reaction of an acid HA:[latex]text{HA}left(aqright)+{text{H}}_{2}text{O}left(lright)rightleftharpoons {text{H}}_{3}{text{O}}^{+}left(aqright)+{text{A}}^{-}left(aqright)[/latex],we write the equation for the ionization constant as:[latex]{K}_{text{a}}=frac{left[{text{H}}_{3}{text{O}}^{+}right]left[{text{A}}^{-}right]}{text{[HA]}}[/latex]where the concentrations are those at equilibrium. Although water is a reactant in the reaction, it is the solvent as well, so we do not include [H2O] in the equation. The larger the Ka of an acid, the larger the concentration of [latex]{text{H}}_{3}{text{O}}^{+}[/latex] and A− relative to the concentration of the nonionized acid, HA. Thus a stronger acid has a larger ionization constant than does a weaker acid. The ionization constants increase as the strengths of the acids increase. (A table of ionization constants of weak acids appears in Ionization Constants of Weak Acids, with a partial listing in Table 1.)The following data on acid-ionization constants indicate the order of acid strength CH3CO2H < HNO2 < [latex]{text{HSO}}_{4}^{-}:[/latex][latex]{text{CH}}_{3}{text{CO}}_{2}text{H}left(aqright)+{text{H}}_{2}text{O}left(lright)rightleftharpoons {text{H}}_{3}{text{O}}^{+}left(aqright)+{text{CH}}_{3}{text{CO}}_{2}^{-}left(aqright){K}_{text{a}}=1.8times {10}^{-5}[/latex] [latex]{text{HNO}}_{2}left(aqright)+{text{H}}_{2}text{O}left(lright)rightleftharpoons {text{H}}_{3}{text{O}}^{+}left(aqright)+{text{NO}}_{2}^{-}left(aqright){K}_{text{a}}=4.6times {10}^{-4}[/latex] [latex]{text{HSO}}_{4}^{-}left(aqright)+{text{H}}_{2}text{O}left(aqright)rightleftharpoons {text{H}}_{3}{text{O}}^{+}left(aqright)+{text{SO}}_{4}^{2-}left(aqright){K}_{text{a}}=1.2times {10}^{-2}[/latex]Another measure of the strength of an acid is its percent ionization. The percent ionization of a weak acid is the ratio of the concentration of the ionized acid to the initial acid concentration, times 100:[latex]text{% ionization}=frac{{left[{text{H}}_{3}{text{O}}^{+}right]}_{text{eq}}}{{left[text{HA}right]}_{0}}times 100[/latex]Because the ratio includes the initial concentration, the percent ionization for a solution of a given weak acid varies depending on the original concentration of the acid, and actually decreases with increasing acid concentration.We can rank the strengths of bases by their tendency to form hydroxide ions in aqueous solution. The reaction of a Brønsted-Lowry base with water is given by:[latex]text{B}left(aqright)+{text{H}}_{2}text{O}left(lright)rightleftharpoons {text{HB}}^{+}left(aqright)+{text{OH}}^{-}left(aqright)[/latex]Water is the acid that reacts with the base, HB+ is the conjugate acid of the base B, and the hydroxide ion is the conjugate base of water. A strong base yields 100% (or very nearly so) of OH− and HB+ when it reacts with water; Table 1 lists several strong bases. A weak base yields a small proportion of hydroxide ions. Soluble ionic hydroxides such as NaOH are considered strong bases because they dissociate completely when dissolved in water.As we did with acids, we can measure the relative strengths of bases by measuring their base-ionization constant, (Kb) in aqueous solutions. In solutions of the same concentration, stronger bases ionize to a greater extent, and so yield higher hydroxide ion concentrations than do weaker bases. A stronger base has a larger ionization constant than does a weaker base. For the reaction of a base, B:[latex]text{B}left(aqright)+{text{H}}_{2}text{O}left(lright)rightleftharpoons {text{HB}}^{+}left(aqright)+{text{OH}}^{-}left(aqright)[/latex],we write the equation for the ionization constant as:[latex]{K}_{text{b}}=frac{left[{text{HB}}^{+}right]left[{text{OH}}^{-}right]}{left[text{B}right]}[/latex]where the concentrations are those at equilibrium. Again, we do not include [H2O] in the equation because water is the solvent. The chemical reactions and ionization constants of the three bases shown are:[latex]{text{NO}}_{2}^{-}left(aqright)+{text{H}}_{2}text{O}left(lright)rightleftharpoons {text{HNO}}_{2}left(aqright)+{text{OH}}^{-}left(aqright){K}_{text{b}}=2.22times {10}^{-11}[/latex] [latex]{text{CH}}_{3}{text{CO}}_{2}^{-}left(aqright)+{text{H}}_{2}text{O}left(lright)rightleftharpoons {text{CH}}_{3}{text{CO}}_{2}text{H}left(aqright)+{text{OH}}^{-}left(aqright){K}_{text{b}}=5.6times {10}^{-10}[/latex] [latex]{text{NH}}_{3}left(aqright)+{text{H}}_{2}text{O}left(lright)rightleftharpoons {text{NH}}_{4}^{+}left(aqright)+{text{OH}}^{-}left(aqright){K}_{text{b}}=1.8times {10}^{-5}[/latex]A table of ionization constants of weak bases appears in Ionization Constants of Weak Bases (with a partial list in Table 2). As with acids, percent ionization can be measured for basic solutions, but will vary depending on the base ionization constant and the initial concentration of the solution.Consider the ionization reactions for a conjugate acid-base pair, HA − A−:Read more: What does iso mean on facebook[latex]text{HA}left(aqright)+{text{H}}_{2}text{O}left(lright)rightleftharpoons {text{H}}_{3}{text{O}}^{+}left(aqright)+{text{A}}^{-}left(aqright){K}_{text{a}}=frac{left[{text{H}}_{3}{text{O}}^{+}right]left[{text{A}}^{-}right]}{left[text{HA}right]}[/latex] [latex]{text{A}}^{-}left(aqright)+{text{H}}_{2}text{O}left(lright)rightleftharpoons {text{OH}}^{-}left(aqright)+text{HA}left(aqright){K}_{text{b}}=frac{left[text{HA}right]left[text{OH}right]}{left[{text{A}}^{-}right]}[/latex]Adding these two chemical equations yields the equation for the autoionization for water:[latex]cancel{text{HA}left(aqright)}+text{H}_{2}text{O}left(lright)+cancel{text{A}^{-}left(aqright)}+text{H}_{2}text{O}left(lright)rightleftharpoonstext{H}_{3}text{O}^{+}left(aqright)+cancel{text{A}^{-}left(aqright)}+text{OH}^{-}left(aqright)+cancel{text{HA}left(aqright)}[/latex] [latex]{text{2H}}_{2}text{O}left(lright)rightleftharpoons {text{H}}_{3}{text{O}}^{+}left(aqright)+{text{OH}}^{-}left(aqright)[/latex]As shown in the previous chapter on equilibrium, the K expression for a chemical equation derived from adding two or more other equations is the mathematical product of the other equations’ K expressions. Multiplying the mass-action expressions together and cancelling common terms, we see that:[latex]{K}_{text{a}}times {K}_{text{b}}=frac{left[{text{H}}_{3}{text{O}}^{+}right]left[{text{A}}^{-}right]}{text{[HA]}}times frac{text{[HA]}left[{text{OH}}^{-}right]}{left[{text{A}}^{-}right]}=left[{text{H}}_{3}{text{O}}^{+}right]left[{text{OH}}^{-}right]={K}_{text{w}}[/latex]For example, the acid ionization constant of acetic acid (CH3COOH) is 1.8 × 10−5, and the base ionization constant of its conjugate base, acetate ion (CH3COO−), is 5.6 × 10−10. The product of these two constants is indeed equal to Kw:[latex]{K}_{text{a}}times {K}_{text{b}}=left(1.8times {10}^{-5}right)times left(5.6times {10}^{-10}right)=1.0times {10}^{-14}={K}_{text{w}}[/latex]The extent to which an acid, HA, donates protons to water molecules depends on the strength of the conjugate base, A−, of the acid. If A− is a strong base, any protons that are donated to water molecules are recaptured by A−. Thus there is relatively little A− and [latex]{text{H}}_{3}{text{O}}^{+}[/latex] in solution, and the acid, HA, is weak. If A− is a weak base, water binds the protons more strongly, and the solution contains primarily A− and [latex]{text{H}}_{3}{text{O}}^{+}[/latex] —the acid is strong. Strong acids form very weak conjugate bases, and weak acids form stronger conjugate bases (Figure 1).Figure 2 lists a series of acids and bases in order of the decreasing strengths of the acids and the corresponding increasing strengths of the bases. The acid and base in a given row are conjugate to each other.The first six acids in Figure 2 are the most common strong acids. These acids are completely dissociated in aqueous solution. The conjugate bases of these acids are weaker bases than water. When one of these acids dissolves in water, their protons are completely transferred to water, the stronger base.Those acids that lie between the hydronium ion and water in Figure 2 form conjugate bases that can compete with water for possession of a proton. Both hydronium ions and nonionized acid molecules are present in equilibrium in a solution of one of these acids. Compounds that are weaker acids than water (those found below water in the column of acids) in Figure 3 exhibit no observable acidic behavior when dissolved in water. Their conjugate bases are stronger than the hydroxide ion, and if any conjugate base were formed, it would react with water to re-form the acid.The extent to which a base forms hydroxide ion in aqueous solution depends on the strength of the base relative to that of the hydroxide ion, as shown in the last column in Figure 2. A strong base, such as one of those lying below hydroxide ion, accepts protons from water to yield 100% of the conjugate acid and hydroxide ion. Those bases lying between water and hydroxide ion accept protons from water, but a mixture of the hydroxide ion and the base results. Bases that are weaker than water (those that lie above water in the column of bases) show no observable basic behavior in aqueous solution.

See Also  Frontier Magic | Top Q&A

The Ionization of Weak Acids and Weak Bases

Contents

Many acids and bases are weak; that is, they do not ionize fully in aqueous solution. A solution of a weak acid in water is a mixture of the nonionized acid, hydronium ion, and the conjugate base of the acid, with the nonionized acid present in the greatest concentration. Thus, a weak acid increases the hydronium ion concentration in an aqueous solution (but not as much as the same amount of a strong acid).Acetic acid, CH3CO2H, is a weak acid. When we add acetic acid to water, it ionizes to a small extent according to the equation:[latex]{text{CH}}_{3}{text{CO}}_{2}text{H}left(aqright)+{text{H}}_{2}text{O}left(lright)rightleftharpoons {text{H}}_{3}{text{O}}^{+}left(aqright)+{text{CH}}_{3}{text{CO}}_{2}^{-}left(aqright)[/latex],giving an equilibrium mixture with most of the acid present in the nonionized (molecular) form. This equilibrium, like other equilibria, is dynamic; acetic acid molecules donate hydrogen ions to water molecules and form hydronium ions and acetate ions at the same rate that hydronium ions donate hydrogen ions to acetate ions to reform acetic acid molecules and water molecules. We can tell by measuring the pH of an aqueous solution of known concentration that only a fraction of the weak acid is ionized at any moment (Figure 3). The remaining weak acid is present in the nonionized form.For acetic acid, at equilibrium:[latex]{K}_{text{a}}=frac{left[{text{H}}_{3}{text{O}}^{+}right]left[{text{CH}}_{3}{text{CO}}_{2}^{-}right]}{left[{text{CH}}_{3}{text{CO}}_{2}text{H}right]}=1.8times {10}^{-5}[/latex] Table 2. Ionization Constants of Some Weak Acids Ionization Reaction Ka at 25 °C [latex]{text{HSO}}_{4}^{-}+{text{H}}_{2}text{O}rightleftharpoons {text{H}}_{3}{text{O}}^{+}+{text{SO}}_{4}^{2-}[/latex] 1.2 × 10−2 [latex]text{HF}+{text{H}}_{2}text{O}rightleftharpoons {text{H}}_{3}{text{O}}^{+}+{text{F}}^{-}[/latex] 7.2 × 10−4 [latex]{text{HNO}}_{2}+{text{H}}_{2}text{O}rightleftharpoons {text{H}}_{3}{text{O}}^{+}+{text{NO}}_{2}^{-}[/latex] 4.5 × 10−4 [latex]text{HNCO}+{text{H}}_{2}text{O}rightleftharpoons {text{H}}_{3}{text{O}}^{+}+{text{NCO}}^{-}[/latex] 3.46 × 10−4 [latex]{text{HCO}}_{2}text{H}+{text{H}}_{2}text{O}rightleftharpoons {text{H}}_{3}{text{O}}^{+}+{text{HCO}}_{2}^{-}[/latex] 1.8 × 10−4 [latex]{text{CH}}_{3}{text{CO}}_{2}text{H}+{text{H}}_{2}text{O}rightleftharpoons {text{H}}_{3}{text{O}}^{+}+{text{CH}}_{3}{text{CO}}_{2}^{-}[/latex] 1.8 × 10−5 [latex]text{HCIO}+{text{H}}_{2}text{O}rightleftharpoons {text{H}}_{3}{text{O}}^{+}+{text{CIO}}^{-}[/latex] 3.5 × 10−8 [latex]text{HBrO}+{text{H}}_{2}text{O}rightleftharpoons {text{H}}_{3}{text{O}}^{+}+{text{BrO}}^{-}[/latex] 2 × 10−9 [latex]text{HCN}+{text{H}}_{2}text{O}rightleftharpoons {text{H}}_{3}{text{O}}^{+}+{text{CN}}^{-}[/latex] 4 × 10−10Table 2 gives the ionization constants for several weak acids; additional ionization constants can be found in Ionization Constants of Weak Acids.At equilibrium, a solution of a weak base in water is a mixture of the nonionized base, the conjugate acid of the weak base, and hydroxide ion with the nonionized base present in the greatest concentration. Thus, a weak base increases the hydroxide ion concentration in an aqueous solution (but not as much as the same amount of a strong base).For example, a solution of the weak base trimethylamine, (CH3)3N, in water reacts according to the equation[latex]{left({text{CH}}_{3}right)}_{3}text{N}left(aqright)+{text{H}}_{2}text{O}left(lright)rightleftharpoons {left({text{CH}}_{3}right)}_{3}{text{NH}}^{+}left(aqright)+{text{OH}}^{-}left(aqright)[/latex],giving an equilibrium mixture with most of the base present as the nonionized amine. This equilibrium is analogous to that described for weak acids.We can confirm by measuring the pH of an aqueous solution of a weak base of known concentration that only a fraction of the base reacts with water (Figure 4). The remaining weak base is present as the unreacted form. The equilibrium constant for the ionization of a weak base, Kb, is called the ionization constant of the weak base, and is equal to the reaction quotient when the reaction is at equilibrium. For trimethylamine, at equilibrium:Read more: What can i hook up to motherboard rgb header[latex]{K}_{text{b}}=frac{left[{left({text{CH}}_{3}right)}_{3}{text{NH}}^{+}right]left[{text{OH}}^{-}right]}{left[{left({text{CH}}_{3}right)}_{3}text{N}right]}[/latex]The ionization constants of several weak bases are given in Table 3 and in Ionization Constants of Weak Bases. Table 3. Ionization Constants of Some Weak Bases Ionization Reaction Kb at 25 °C [latex]{left({text{CH}}_{3}right)}_{2}text{NH}+{text{H}}_{2}text{O}rightleftharpoons {left({text{CH}}_{3}right)}_{2}{text{NH}}_{2}^{+}+{text{OH}}^{-}[/latex] 7.4 × 10−4 [latex]{text{CH}}_{3}{text{NH}}_{2}+{text{H}}_{2}text{O}rightleftharpoons {text{CH}}_{3}{text{NH}}_{3}^{+}+{text{OH}}^{-}[/latex] 4.4 × 10−4 [latex]{left({text{CH}}_{3}right)}_{3}text{N}+{text{H}}_{2}text{O}rightleftharpoons {left({text{CH}}_{3}right)}_{3}{text{NH}}^{+}+{text{OH}}^{-}[/latex] 7.4 × 10−5 [latex]{text{NH}}_{3}+{text{H}}_{2}text{O}rightleftharpoons {text{NH}}_{4}^{+}+{text{OH}}^{-}[/latex] 1.8 × 10−5 [latex]{text{C}}_{6}{text{H}}_{5}{text{NH}}_{2}+{text{H}}_{2}text{O}rightleftharpoons {text{C}}_{6}{text{N}}_{5}{text{NH}}_{3}^{+}+{text{OH}}^{-}[/latex] 4.6 × 10−10Example 7 shows that the concentration of products produced by the ionization of a weak base can be determined by the same series of steps used with a weak acid.Some weak acids and weak bases ionize to such an extent that the simplifying assumption that x is small relative to the initial concentration of the acid or base is inappropriate. As we solve for the equilibrium concentrations in such cases, we will see that we cannot neglect the change in the initial concentration of the acid or base, and we must solve the equilibrium equations by using the quadratic equation.

See Also  What toxins are released after chiropractic adjustment

The Relative Strengths of Strong Acids and Bases

Strong acids, such as HCl, HBr, and HI, all exhibit the same strength in water. The water molecule is such a strong base compared to the conjugate bases Cl−, Br−, and I− that ionization of these strong acids is essentially complete in aqueous solutions. In solvents less basic than water, we find HCl, HBr, and HI differ markedly in their tendency to give up a proton to the solvent. For example, when dissolved in ethanol (a weaker base than water), the extent of ionization increases in the order HCl < HBr < HI, and so HI is demonstrated to be the strongest of these acids. The inability to discern differences in strength among strong acids dissolved in water is known as the leveling effect of water.Water also exerts a leveling effect on the strengths of strong bases. For example, the oxide ion, O2−, and the amide ion, [latex]{text{NH}}_{2}^{-}[/latex], are such strong bases that they react completely with water:[latex]{text{O}}^{2-}left(aqright)+{text{H}}_{2}text{O}left(lright)longrightarrow {text{OH}}^{-}left(aqright)+{text{OH}}^{-}left(aqright)[/latex] [latex]{text{NH}}_{2}^{-}left(aqright)+{text{H}}_{2}text{O}left(lright)longrightarrow {text{NH}}_{3}left(aqright)+{text{OH}}^{-}left(aqright)[/latex]Thus, O2− and [latex]{text{NH}}_{2}^{-}[/latex] appear to have the same base strength in water; they both give a 100% yield of hydroxide ion.

Effect of Molecular Structure on Acid-Base Strength

In the absence of any leveling effect, the acid strength of binary compounds of hydrogen with nonmetals (A) increases as the H-A bond strength decreases down a group in the periodic table. For group 7A, the order of increasing acidity is HF < HCl < HBr < HI. Likewise, for group 6A, the order of increasing acid strength is H2O < H2S < H2Se < H2Te.Across a row in the periodic table, the acid strength of binary hydrogen compounds increases with increasing electronegativity of the nonmetal atom because the polarity of the H-A bond increases. Thus, the order of increasing acidity (for removal of one proton) across the second row is CH4 < NH3 < H2O < HF; across the third row, it is SiH4 < PH3 < H2S < HCl (see Figure 7).Compounds containing oxygen and one or more hydroxyl (OH) groups can be acidic, basic, or amphoteric, depending on the position in the periodic table of the central atom E, the atom bonded to the hydroxyl group. Such compounds have the general formula OnE(OH)m, and include sulfuric acid, O2S(OH)2, sulfurous acid, OS(OH)2, nitric acid, O2NOH, perchloric acid, O3ClOH, aluminum hydroxide, Al(OH)3, calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2, and potassium hydroxide, KOH: A diagram is shown that includes a central atom designated with the letter E. Single bonds extend above, below, left, and right of the E. An O atom is bonded to the right of the E, and an arrow points to the bond labeling it, “Bond a.” An H atom is single bonded to the right of the O atom. An arrow pointing to this bond connects it to the label, “Bond b.”If the central atom, E, has a low electronegativity, its attraction for electrons is low. Little tendency exists for the central atom to form a strong covalent bond with the oxygen atom, and bond a between the element and oxygen is more readily broken than bond b between oxygen and hydrogen. Hence bond a is ionic, hydroxide ions are released to the solution, and the material behaves as a base—this is the case with Ca(OH)2 and KOH. Lower electronegativity is characteristic of the more metallic elements; hence, the metallic elements form ionic hydroxides that are by definition basic compounds.If, on the other hand, the atom E has a relatively high electronegativity, it strongly attracts the electrons it shares with the oxygen atom, making bond a relatively strongly covalent. The oxygen-hydrogen bond, bond b, is thereby weakened because electrons are displaced toward E. Bond b is polar and readily releases hydrogen ions to the solution, so the material behaves as an acid. High electronegativities are characteristic of the more nonmetallic elements. Thus, nonmetallic elements form covalent compounds containing acidic −OH groups that are called oxyacids.Increasing the oxidation number of the central atom E also increases the acidity of an oxyacid because this increases the attraction of E for the electrons it shares with oxygen and thereby weakens the O-H bond. Sulfuric acid, H2SO4, or O2S(OH)2 (with a sulfur oxidation number of +6), is more acidic than sulfurous acid, H2SO3, or OS(OH)2 (with a sulfur oxidation number of +4). Likewise nitric acid, HNO3, or O2NOH (N oxidation number = +5), is more acidic than nitrous acid, HNO2, or ONOH (N oxidation number = +3). In each of these pairs, the oxidation number of the central atom is larger for the stronger acid (Figure 8).Hydroxy compounds of elements with intermediate electronegativities and relatively high oxidation numbers (for example, elements near the diagonal line separating the metals from the nonmetals in the periodic table) are usually amphoteric. This means that the hydroxy compounds act as acids when they react with strong bases and as bases when they react with strong acids. The amphoterism of aluminum hydroxide, which commonly exists as the hydrate Al(H2O)3(OH)3, is reflected in its solubility in both strong acids and strong bases. In strong bases, the relatively insoluble hydrated aluminum hydroxide, Al(H2O)3(OH)3, is converted into the soluble ion, [latex]{left[text{Al}{left({text{H}}_{2}text{O}right)}_{2}{left(text{OH}right)}_{4}right]}^{-}[/latex], by reaction with hydroxide ion:[latex]text{Al}{left({text{H}}_{2}text{O}right)}_{3}{left(text{OH}right)}_{3}left(aqright)+{text{OH}}^{-}left(aqright)rightleftharpoons {text{H}}_{2}text{O}left(lright)+{left[text{Al}{left({text{H}}_{2}text{O}right)}_{2}{left(text{OH}right)}_{4}right]}^{-}left(aqright)[/latex]In this reaction, a proton is transferred from one of the aluminum-bound H2O molecules to a hydroxide ion in solution. The Al(H2O)3(OH)3 compound thus acts as an acid under these conditions. On the other hand, when dissolved in strong acids, it is converted to the soluble ion [latex]{left[text{Al}{left({text{H}}_{2}text{O}right)}_{6}right]}^{3+}[/latex] by reaction with hydronium ion:[latex]{text{3H}}_{3}{text{O}}^{+}left(aqright)+text{Al}{left({text{H}}_{2}text{O}right)}_{3}{left(text{OH}right)}_{3}left(aqright)rightleftharpoons text{Al}{left({text{H}}_{2}text{O}right)}_{6}^{3+}left(aqright)+{text{3H}}_{2}text{O}left(lright)[/latex]In this case, protons are transferred from hydronium ions in solution to Al(H2O)3(OH)3, and the compound functions as a base.

See Also  What Color Does Green And Purple Make

Glossary

acid ionization constant (Ka): equilibrium constant for the ionization of a weak acidbase ionization constant (Kb): equilibrium constant for the ionization of a weak baseleveling effect of water: any acid stronger than [latex]{text{H}}_{3}{text{O}}^{+}[/latex], or any base stronger than OH− will react with water to form [latex]{text{H}}_{3}{text{O}}^{+}[/latex], or OH−, respectively; water acts as a base to make all strong acids appear equally strong, and it acts as an acid to make all strong bases appear equally strongoxyacid: compound containing a nonmetal and one or more hydroxyl groupspercent ionization: ratio of the concentration of the ionized acid to the initial acid concentration, times 100Read more: what is a butter beat off | Top Q&A

Last, Wallx.net sent you details about the topic “Chemistry | Top Q&A❤️️”.Hope with useful information that the article “Chemistry | Top Q&A” It will help readers to be more interested in “Chemistry | Top Q&A [ ❤️️❤️️ ]”.

Posts “Chemistry | Top Q&A” posted by on 2021-08-22 02:00:07. Thank you for reading the article at wallx.net

Rate this post
Back to top button